Category

Thulium

Catalogue

Atomic structure
Discovery
Source
Element USES
physical property
Chemical property
Geological data
Biology data

Atomic structure

Atomic radius/A: 2.42
Atomic volume/cm3 / mol: 18.1
Electronic configuration: 1 2 3 4 s2p6 s2 s2p6d10 s2p6d10f13 5 s2p6 6 s2
Ion radius/A: 0.869
Covalent radius/A: 1.56 oxidation state: 3, 2

Discovery

1879 by P.T. Cleve (Sweden, uppsala) found.

Source

And other rare earth elements coexist in the silicon yttrium beryllium ore, black rare gold mine, phosphorus ore minerals such as yttrium.

Element USES

Radioactive tm used to drive the portable X-ray instrument, can replace the power supply.

physical property

State: silver rare earth metal.

Melting point (℃) : 1545
Boiling point (℃) : 1947
Density (g/cc, 300 K) : 9.32


Than hot/J/gK: 0.16
Evaporation heat/KJ/mol: 191
Melting hot/KJ/mol: 16.84


Conductive rate / 106 / cm: 0.015
Coefficient of thermal conductivity/W/cmK: 0.168

Geological data

abundance
Retention time/year: unknown

The sun (relative to the H = 1 x 1012) : 1.8 sea/P.P.M. :
The earth's crust/P.P.M. : 0.48 the Atlantic ocean surface: 1.3 x 10-seven Pacific surface: 0.7 x 10-seven
Atmospheric/P.P.M. (volume) : the Atlantic ocean depths: 1.6 x 10-seven deep in the Pacific: 3.3 x 10-seven

Biology data

Content in the human body
Liver/P.P.M. :
Organs: unknown, but less. Muscle/P.P.M. :
Blood/mg dm-3: th intake/mg: unknown
Bone/P.P.M. : people (70 Kg) are total body/mg: unknown

Detailed information

Thulium/Tm