Category

Lithium

Catalogue

Atomic structure
Discovery
Source
Element USES
physical property
Chemical property
Geological data
Biology data

Atomic structure

Atomic radius/Å: 2.05
Atomic volume/cm3/mol: 13.1
Covalent radius/Å: 1.23
Electronic configuration: 1s2 2s1
Ion radius/Å: 0.76 oxidation state: Ⅰ 

Discovery

In 1817 in Stockholm, Sweden, by J.A. Arfvedson found.

Source

Lithium pyroxene, lithium mica and salt lake and so on, by electrolysis licl solution can be made.

Element USES

Used in battery, glass, ceramics, lubricants, heat transfer medium, the rockets drive agent, vitamin A synthesis, etc. 

physical property

State: soft color of silver metal, is the lightest metal. Melting point (℃) : 180.7
Boiling point (℃) : 1342
Density (g/CC, 300 K) : 0.534
Than hot/J/gK: 3.6
Evaporation heat/KJ/mol: 145.92
Melting hot/KJ/mol: 3
Conductive rate / 106 / cm: 0.108
Coefficient of thermal conductivity/W/cmK: 0.847 

Chemical property

No data

Geological data

Abundance retention time/year: 2 x 106

The sun (relative to the H = 1 x 1012) : 10 sea/P.P.M. : 0.17

The earth's crust/P.P.M. : 20 

Biology data

The human body the content in liver/P.P.M. : 0.025

Organs: muscle/P.P.M. : 0.023

Blood/mg dm-3:0.004 days intake/mg: 0.1-2

Bone/P.P.M. : 1.3 (70 Kg) are total body/mg: 7

Detailed information

Lithium, atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.941, is the lightest alkali metal elements. Element name comes from the Greek, original intention is "rock". 1817 by Swedish scientists put in analysis through WeiCong o lithium feldspar found. The nature of the main lithium mineral for lithium pyroxene, lithium mica, through the lithium feldspar and phosphorus application, etc. People and animals in the body, soil and mineral water, cocoa powder, tobacco, algae can be found in the lithium. Natural lithium has two isotopic: lithium 6 and 7 lithium.

Lithium metal to a white light metals; Melting point of 180.54 ° C, boiling point 1342 ° C, density of 0.534 g/cm ³, hardness is 0.6. Metal lithium can dissolve in liquid ammonia.

Lithium and other different alkali metal at room temperature and water react slowly, but with nitrogen reacts to the black nitriding three lithium crystals. Lithium dilute salt soluble in water. In alkali metal chloride, only licl soluble in organic solvents. Lithium volatile the flame of salt in deep red, can use this to identify the lithium.

Lithium easily with oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur and combined, in metallurgy industry can be used as deoxidizer. Lithium can also do lead base alloy and beryllium, magnesium, aluminum alloy composition of light. Lithium in the atomic energy industry have important applications.